2020 Undergraduate Exhibition

Title Presenter Abstract Faculty Sponsor Number
Heritage Management at Khan al-Umdan in Acre (Akko), Israel: An Unsolvable 'Wicked' Problem? John Gurklis

Khan al-Umdan is the crown jewel of the UNESCO World Heritage site the Old City of Acre (Akko), Israel. The 18th century Ottoman building has been neglected for decades and is in serious need of repair. In 2018, developers purchased the building, sparking debate over the heritage-management of the site. This research, conducted with the Tel Akko Total Archaeology Project, concludes that framing the issue as a 'wicked' problem would assist stakeholders in building consensus.

Ann Killebrew 7
How does NfuA regenerate a [4Fe4S] cluster in lipoyl synthase? Jay Pendyala

NfuA is a Fe-S carrier protein that has been shown to regenerate LipA's sacrificial auxiliary [4Fe-4S] cluster thereby promoting multi-turnover production of lipoic acid, an essential sulfur-containing enzyme cofactor of aerobic metabolic enzymes. We use the amenable Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) to crystallographically elucidate the mechanism of Fe-S regeneration between LipA-NfuA. We also investigate the impact of introducing a non-native metal binding residue NfuA to shed light on its therapeutic implications.

Amie Boal 99
How individual differences in native language proficiency, executive function, and motivation affect second language learning outcomes in children. Tsz Lam Ip Bilinguals cannot shut off one of their languages: Research has found that recognizing words in one language is influenced by knowledge of another language. For my honor's thesis, I examined if such cross-language interaction is modulated by individual differences, in English children who learn Spanish at school. I found that variation in children's language proficiency, executive function, and motivation to learn a second language influenced brain activity patterns associated with cross-language activation during word recognition. Janet Van Hell 132
Identification of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs in a model of neuron differentiation Fatima Khan In the study, transcriptomic data from control and differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells was analyzed to identify differentially expressed lncRNA. The raw data was quality tested, mapped to the human reference genome, and quantified to reveal differentially expressed (DE) genes. Of 3108 DE genes, 2291 were protein-coding and 817 were non-coding. Of these non-coding genes, 475 were upregulated and 342 were downregulated, and include lncRNAs, antisense and intronic transcripts, and transcripts coded from pseudogenes. Nikolaos Tsotakos 83
Identification of Regions of DRB-sensitivity Inducing Factor (DSIF) Involved in Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) Recruitment Eilene B Deng Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA Polymerase II (PolII) is a widespread transcriptional regulatory mechanism in metazoans. DSIF and NELF cooperatively contribute to pausing by binding to PolII, and DSIF recruits NELF to the PolII elongation complex. To understand the molecular mechanism behind NELF recruitment by DSIF, I generated DSIF mutants based on available structural data and will test the ability of these mutants to recruit NELF in order to understand the biochemical interactions that drive pausing. David Gilmour 64
Identifying Inhibitors of the Hfq-Mediated Degradation of σE small RNA Regulons in E. coli Katherine Winer The sE-Hfq pathway is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane under cell stress which is important for virulence or viability in gram-negative bacteria. Hfq is a chaperone that helps regulate outer membrane protein mRNAs. Small molecule inhibitors of the sE-Hfq pathway identified from a high-throughput screen, and natural products isolated from Hawaii, were analyzed using a cell-based fluorescence assay to identify those that specifically target the Hfq pathway. John Alumasa 52
Identifying Subtypes of Type VI Secretion Systems in Vibrio fischeri Peyton Moore The type VI secretion system is a contact-dependent molecular mechanism harbored by some bacterial isolates. Select cells of Vibrio fischeri utilize T6 to kill competitors and engage in symbiosis with Euprymna scolopes. The goal of this project was to develop a screen for type VI character. This screen could then be expanded to study type VI positive strain interactions and develop subcategories type VI. Studying this mechanism expands knowledge of bacterial interactions within a host. Tim Miyashiro 80
Identifying the Molecular Targets of σE-Pathway Inhibitors Matthew Kostelac As the risk of antibiotic resistance becomes an increasing threat to public health, it has become imperative that research is conducted in order to develop new novel antibiotics. One promising potential target of such an antibiotic is the sE pathway, a stress response pathway widely conserved across Gram-negative bacteria. Using a parent compound referred to as KKL-2170, analogues were developed and tested for activity against E. coli, with current and future research addressing target identification. John Alumasa 87
Investigating Implicit Gender Bias in Engineering Design Teams Charity Hipple This research investigates implicit gender bias in engineering design teams. Research in engineering design has pointed to significant biases that can affect the quality of design processes. There is little research that confronts implicit bias either on the fidelity of the project outcomes that are produced. To do this Engineers took surveys on their attitudes on implicit biases and monitored behavior during controlled design experiences. We hope these findings will impact diversity in engineering. Catherine Berdanier 40
Investigating Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) at TaqI sites in the Human Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1) Jai Nagpal and Joseph Passero Polymorphisms within the Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3 or DAT1) are needed for genetic analyses of dopamine-related traits including addiction. We screened the gene looking for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), using Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) and restriction endonuclease digestion. Sites in which cutting occurs in some individuals' DNA but not others are polymorphic and will be cataloged for future genetic analyses. This method allowed detection of other types of polymorphisms as well (e.g., tandem repeat variations). David Vandenbergh 90
Investigating the Protein PF3D7_0420300 as a Potential Drug Target in the Malaria Inducing Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Erin Kelly

In 2018, approximately 228 million people contracted malaria, and over 405,000 of those individuals died from the infection. The deadliest form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is a eukaryotic parasite that multiplies rapidly in blood. I am investigating a P. falciparum transcription factor (PF3D7_0420300) that regulates parasite development and may serve as a potential drug target. I will be using verious reverse genetic approaches and other methods of investigation to characterize this protein and its role during the asexual blood stage of the malaria parasite's lifecycle.

Manuel Llinas 57
Investigating the Role of Ribosomal Protein L9 on the Activity of trans-Translation Inhibitors Jasmine Arunachalam Ribosome rescue through the trans-translation pathway, which ensure translational fidelity, is a novel antibacterial drug target. Ribosomal protein L9 enhances the fidelity of protein translation in bacteria, which may affect ribosome rescue from trans-translation. The impact of ribosomal protein L9 on the activity of known inhibitors of trans-translation was investigated using wild-type and L9-deletion strains of E. coli. Growth inhibitory analysis from the two strains suggest that ribosomal protein L9 functions independent of trans-translation. John Alumasa 68
Investigating Water Access Challenges for Developing Countries: Vietnam and Kenya Case Study Abigail Cowser One of the most basic human rights is access to safe drinking water, a responsibility which the 6th Sustainable Development Goal strives "to ensure access to water and sanitation for all." In order to build further understanding of the complexities that exist within international development and ensuring equal access to safe drinking water, the objective of this research is to investigate specific water access challenges for developing and emerging countries, specifically in Vietnam and Kenya. Caitlin Grady 11
Investigation into the regulation of [1, 25(OH)2D3] by CPY24A1 and the impact on T cell proliferation Courtney Page

Thus far in our investigation, we have determined time-points of T cell proliferation through CFSE analysis on both whole spleen and purified T cell samples. Additionally, we have observed that active vitamin D added directly to stimulated splenocytes inhibited T cell function in a dose dependent manner by suppressing IFN-g (measured by ELISA). The goal this semester was to determine if T cells produce CYP24A1 upon activation and if 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates CYP24A1 mRNA expression.

Margherita Cantorna 2001
Investigation of Relationships between Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging Fractional Anisotropy and Applied Mechanical Strain Ouniol Aklilu Sensitive measures of structural changes, due to brain injury detected with fractional anisotropy (FA), show conflicting trends in how FA changes due to injury. In this work, we provide a detailed examination of the correlation between MR-DTI changes and mechanical strain using an experimental and computational investigation approach. This presentation will focus on the MR-DTI data, mechanical testing and finite element simulation that have been conducted to correlate mechanical strain with changes in fractional anisotropy. Reuben Kraft 28
Investigation of the Conductivity of Iron Oxide Based Magnetorheological Fluids James Zola Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are a type of magnetic material that, when exposed to an external magnetic field, exhibit changes in properties such as resistivity and viscosity. They have a variety of applications as shock absorbers in braking systems or as a magnetic model for synapse function. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of composition of these fluids on the resistivity property with the end goal of creating a magnetically active switch. Paris von Lockette 38
Leadership in STEM John Biscanti Combining the various leadership theories for the analysis of what makes an effective leader in engineering is essential to create a productive, effective, and ethical society. Interviews are given to students with STEM backgrounds with the aim to learn about whether someone's leading style is people-oriented or task-oriented. This data can then be used to compare results and hopefully be used to create a model that connects different categories together. John Park 41
Ligand-gold core interactions control the electronic structure in gold nanoparticles Nicholas Litak

Despite the vast body of literature dedicated to understanding metallic nanoparticles, little is known about how the organic ligands affect the electronic band structure in gold nanoparticles. Herein, we report an effective and inexpensive method of probing the electronic band structure of gold nanoparticles using NMR spectroscopy, and then use this technique to demonstrate that manipulation of the ligand shell composition is a robust and underutilized method for the tunability of these structures.

Benjamin Lear 114
Magnetic Beads: A More Environmentally Friendly Approach to Extracting High Molecular Weight DNA Evan Buck Many current DNA extraction protocols rely on a phenol-chloroform or column based extraction method, which can be hazardous or expensive. In this series of experiments, an existing magnetic bead DNA extraction protocol originally used for plants was adapted and optimized to be used to extract high molecular weight DNA. While this magnetic bead protocol is effective in extracting high quality clean DNA, further optimization needs to be done to improve DNA yields. David Vandenbergh 74
Masculinity in Positions of High and Low Power Nicholas Mallender Being primed with high power leads to reduced perspective taking and empathy. Because power is associated with masculinity and perspective taking and empathy are considered to be feminine characteristics, we hypothesize that threats to power (i.e. imagining having low power) will lead to the same outcomes as masculinity threats (i.e. public discomfort, anger, reduced perspective taking, reduced empathy) for men but not women. Results of our study (N = 402) partially support our hypothesis. Theresa Vescio 136
Mechanisms in Receptor Binding Preference of H3N2 Influenza with Regards to Pontential Mammalian Transmission Samuel Rovito An influenza pandemic occurs when an animal-origin influenza virus crosses the species barrier and transmits efficiently from person-to-person via the airborne route. To understand the viral properties that facilitate transmission, a panel of mutant viruses were generated with mutations in the viral protein, hemagglutinin, that binds to cell surface receptors. These viruses were evaluated in a receptor binding assay to determine which mutations enhance the affinity of hemagglutinin for human receptors. Troy Sutton 73
Memory, Arousal, & Desensitization Hannah Ahearn and Jordan Reis We wanted to explore the factors that affect memory such as arousal, emotion, and media consumption. We predicted that stronger physiological responses and emotion changes would correspond to better memory of a series of negative affect videos. We also considered visually stimulating media consumption in the form of video games and television. Our results did not support the research that shows negative events are recalled easier. Alicia Drais-Parillo 149
Met RTK Dephosphorylation in Response to Energetic Stress and Acute Kidney Injury Isaiah Gaines The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is known to play an important role in renal repair after Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). We find that energetic stress induces rapid dephosphorylation of the Met RTK, and the Met ligand, HGF, blocks stress-induced loss of Met activity. This suggests that early HGF addition could enhance signaling for renal repair during energetic stress from AKI. Understanding the mechanisms involved may lead to interventions for improved patient recovery from AKI. Emily Bell 69
Metabolites produced by the machinery mold Galactomyces isolated from apple packing facilities suppresses growth of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Fujunzhu Zhao A previous microbiome study found significant associations between Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a foodborne pathogen, and the fungal family Dipodascaceae, in apple packing facilities. The goal of this study is to isolate and identify Galactomyces spp. in the family Dipodascaceae from apple packing facility environments and investigate the effect of metabolites produced by Galactomyces spp. on the growth of LM. Our results suggest that time-dependent production of Galactomyces-associated metabolites influence the ability to suppress LM growth. Josephine Wee 82
Metformin disrupts cancer cell force generation and migration through confined environments Kaitlyn Garvey Cell migration relies on ATP-intensive processes, and energy investment may vary depending on physical obstacles. We used inhibitors that affected ATP production and metabolic signaling to study migration through confined spaces using 3D microfluidic devices. The mitochondrial poison metformin was shown to impair confined migration and decrease P-MLC signaling controlling actin contractility. The results support that targeting cell metabolism can alter cell migration, which could help in design of interventions to limit metastasis in cancer. Emily Bell 2010
Methacholine Induces an Acute Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of Adolescent Asthma Piper Jones

Methacholine (MCH) is an agonist that can bind to airway smooth muscle to induce bronchoconstriction and consequently labored breathing. Previous research has shown that MCH induces labored breathing in a mouse model of adolescent asthma. Here, we show that methacholine is associated with an acute inflammatory response in mice, measured by heightened inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This association between MCH and acute inflammation will have applications for future asthma studies utilizing methacholine.

Sonia Cavigelli 70
Microbial Fight Club—An Arms Race Between Bacterial Symbionts Anjali Mcneil

Bacterial symbionts confer physiological effects on eukaryotic hosts. The strain of bacteria, as well as the species can impact these effects. Contact-dependent competitive mechanisms determine which strains are able to establish and maintain symbiosis with a host. One competitive method the Type VI secretion system, a nano-machine that delivers toxins that cause lysis. The project studies interactions between different Type VI+ strains using the squid-Vibrio symbiosis as a model for symbiosis establishment and strain diversity.

Tim Miyashiro 167
Militarized Interstate Dispute Dataset Liza Buschinski

A militarized interstate dispute (MID) is defined as a threat, show, or use of force by one state in the international system against another state. The latest version of the Militarized Interstate Dispute dataset identifies 2,315 MIDs within the years 1816-2010. My role included adding disputes in the years 2011-2014 to the dataset. The poster will describe the trends we have found regarding the locations and types of military incidents over this four-year period

Roseanne McManus 133
Nanoplastic Identification & Quantification in Aqueous Media Olivia Meyer, Jacqueline Hensler and Emily Thompson

Particle size distributions were determined using nanoparticle tracking analysis and small-angle x-ray scattering methods. We developed and optimized sample preparative and instrumental conditions to provide for the targeted detection of nanoplastics in our model solutions using both nano-IR and cryo-EM techniques. Our results suggest that the method can be used for the targeted detection of nanoplastics in natural samples.

Danny Sykes 2006
Negative Affect and Emotion Dysregulation Predicts Post-Traumatic Cognitions in Traumatized Individuals Katherine Braund and Alyssa Zampogna The current examined the interaction between NA and difficulties with emotion regulation in traumatized individuals and how this interaction relates to the experience of post-traumatic cognitions. A multiple regression analysis was conducted in young adults (N = 94) who endorsed the past experience of a criterion A traumatic event. Preliminary results indicated both NA and emotion dysregulation are significant predictors of post-traumatic cognitions; the two predictors explained 30.2% of total variability in post-traumatic cognitions. Wilson Brown 156
Neural Networks for Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracking Christopher Bryan

The power that the solar panels generate can vary depending on the operating conditions and the load the panel is connected to. A machine learning algorithm called a neural network can be used to track the point of optimal load where a solar panel generates the most amount of power given the conditions. This poster will demonstrate the effectiveness of neural networks used for solar panel maximum power point tracking.

Seth Wolpert 27
Nurses’ Perception of Palliative Care and its Impact on Palliative Care Referrals in the Acute Care Setting Kalei Kowalchik Palliative care (PC) utilizes a collaborative healthcare team to focus on a patient's physical, emotional, and spiritual quality of life while managing his/her symptoms and alleviating suffering associated with his/her debilitating illness(s). In the acute care setting, nurses often recommend to physicians which patients should be receiving PC; however, their limited understanding of PC decrease patient referral rates. A qualitative descriptive study performed assessed nurses' perception of PC and facilitators and barriers towards PC referrals. Michael Evans 92
Occurrence, Fate and Transport of PFAS at the Living Filter Matthew Soffera The Living Filter at Penn State is a 600-acre area of agricultural and forested lands to which all of the Universiy's treated wastewater is spray irrigated. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) consists of more than 3000 compounds which are utilized in products stain resistant clothing. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentrations of PFAS compounds in (i) wasteater influent and effluent; and and (ii) groundwater monitoring wells at the Living Filter. Heather Preisendanz 32
Optimal Dexterity for Tensegrity Robotic Arm Nate Osikowicz

The ability for robots in space to carry out coordinated tasks such as assembly requires a significant level of dexterity to optimally manipulate a wide array of objects. A baseline for optimality, the tensegrity structure in the human arm features a continuous network of tendons that uniformly distribute external forces among the entire internal tension network. This research lays the groundwork for an optimally controlled tensegrity robotic arm through dynamic modeling and LQR control realization.

Puneet Singla 31
Optimizing Caco-2 growth conditions to establish a co-culture system for investigating active probiotic-associated metabolites Jessica Rodriguez Probiotic-associated metabolites (PAMs) decrease silica-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory cytokine release in macrophages in vitro. PAMs must pass the intestinal epithelium (mimicked by Caco-2 cells) to produce the observed effects in vivo. SCFA, which are known to pass into circulation, were evaluated without Caco-2 cells, but the results showed they were not main contributors. As the first step toward establishing a co-culture model to investigate other active PAMs, the growth conditions of Caco-2 cells were optimized. Josephine Wee 62
Optimizing the Weir Equation for Nature-Like Fish Passages Autumn Deitrick

Rock weirs (porous dam-like structures) are used to construct nature-like fish passages (NLFPs) in order to reestablish river connectivity and allow fish to continue migratory journeys. There is currently no formula to predict whether an NLFP will produce complex flow patterns to attract fish to the passages. My work seeks to accurately predict attraction flow by determining specific weir coefficients that can account for rock weir shape and porosity using a computational and experimental design.

Xiaofeng Liu 16
Orbit Modeling With Mathematica Joshua Ritter

Spaceflight is undoubtedly one of the most complex endeavors mankind has begun, yet the basis for our achievements is something we've all started learning since kindergarten: mathematics. Yes, the math is complex, but I've set out to discover how the math we learn in our Penn State courses applies to a spacecraft in orbit around a planetary body. Using Wolfram Mathematica, we can create 3D models of these orbits with real mathematical equations.

Kuei-Nuan Lin 29
Pathogenicity Tests of Pseudomonas spp. on Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis Laine Hackenberg In 2018, bacterial leaf blight was reported in Florida on a commercial field of pak choi. Bacteria from symptomatic plants were isolated, purified, and stored in -80degC. Four unknown isolates were obtained, because they fluoresce on Kings B media, they are thought to be Pseudomonas spp.The purpose of this project was to confirm the pathogenicity of these isolates. It was found through the pathogenicity test that all four isolates are pathogenic on pak choi. Carolee Bull 78
Pediatric Healthcare Access for Low Socioeconomic Patients in Costa Rica Darien Kase This research provides an overview of pediatric care for Costa Rican citizens, specifically families who are considered low socioeconomic status. The significance of this project is to bring attention to the healthcare needs for these patients, as well as highlight the difference in care these patients receive in comparison to patients of higher economic status. Mary Alyce Nelson 49
Penn State Greater Allegheny Crime Statistics -- Are they accurate? Max Shugerman et al Official statistics show that few crimes are reported to the Penn State Greater Allegheny police; yet, do these data accurately reflect students' perceptions, and experiences, of crime on campus? This project captures students' fear of crime, feelings of safety, and history of victimization at Greater Allegheny, using a survey developed by students in CRIMJ 100 in Fall 2019. This poster will present descriptive statistics from a portion of the survey measuring students' fear of crime. Kate Mclean 141
PhamilyHealth: A look into familial communication in regards to health Rachael Owens Within the discipline of Human-Computer Interaction there is the exploration of how health technologies can support families in their journeys of improving their physical and mental health. Through a literature analysis we have found a gap in technologies regarding familial communication about health and wellbeing. In response we are developing PhamilyHealth, an application for families to openly engage with one another about their health habits and encourage one another to improve their overall wellbeing. John Carol 34
Photomultiplier Tube Pressure Testing for the Water Cherenkov Monitor for Antineutrinos Eliza Neights By detecting the antineutrino flux from a nuclear reactor, it is possible to identify its operational status, allowing for nuclear reactors to be monitored. The Water Cherenkov Monitor for Antineutrinos (WATCHMAN) will use a detector comprised of a large tank of water lined with photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). There is a possibility of the PMTs breaking under the water pressure, so we are testing them under pressure to determine what factors would cause them to crack. Doug Cowen 97
Physical Activity, Seasonality, and Weather Indices: A Scoping Review of Research with Device-based Measures of Physical Activity Kelsey Bittel

Environmental influences such as seasonality have been shown to impact physical activity (PA), and recent advances in technology have made it easier to measure PA in real-time. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the impact of seasons and weather on device-based measurements of physical activity. 63 relevant articles were identified from 558. Winter and precipitation were consistently associated with lower PA. Weather and seasons must be considered when designing PA interventions.

David Conroy 123
Population genetics of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) across a fragmented landscape Emily Eiss Penn State Behrend's local population of spotted salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum, was divided into smaller sub-populations by the Bayfront Connector highway in the year 2000. Currently, it is unknown how this habitat fragmentation has affected gene flow between the sub-populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how the Bayfront Connector has affected the genetic structure of each sub-population through analysis of microsatellites isolated from tissue samples. The results analyzed allelic richness, heterozygosity, and F-statistics. Adam Simpson 47
Potential use of biocontrol Trichoderma spp. metabolites to control growth and aflatoxin production in A. parasiticus Amy Kovaleski

We tested the feasibility of using fungal metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp. to inhibit aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Using a cellophane-based method, seven biocontrol-related Trichoderma strains tested for their ability to secrete metabolites that block the synthesis of aflatoxin, known liver and lung carcinogen in A. parasiticus. Results demonstrate that water-soluble metabolites secreted by candidate strains,Trichoderma viride and T. harzianum have the ability to target aflatoxin production with minimal effect on A. parasiticus growth.

Josephine Wee 2002
Power 5 Conference Colleges and the Promotion of Physical Activity Among Incoming Freshmen Dean Gouda The websites of "Power 5 Conference" colleges were systematically reviewed to identify summer programs containing well-being courses, specifically physical activity. Of the 80 colleges, only 43 (54%) had summer programs, 11 (26%) of which included a physical activity course. Results show a gross lack in physical health promotion in students, and indicate that a stronger emphasis on the importance of a healthy lifestyle should be incorporated into colleges nationwide. Melissa Bopp 2003
Princesses and Princessing: The Sociology of Making Magic Kristin Newvine

Currently, in cities across America you can book a character, for example, a princess, to entertain parties and events. These characters are based on Disney fairytales and other children's stories. This project takes a student engagement experience in what "princessing" and pushes it in a scholarly direction, including qualitative and quantitative research into who is participating in these events, where they are taking place, and reflections into the lived experience of becoming a princess.

Nicholas Rowland 169
Printing Magnetic Materials using Clay 3D Printing Ian Ian

Multi-material 3D printing is a crucial technology for prototyping and manufacturing complicated objects. However, there are few printers capable of using magnetic materials. To do so, we plan on adapting clay 3D printing technology. We would mix a magnetic material with a binder to create a slurry, which the clay 3D printer should be capable of extruding. This process might be useful for specific purposes, such as human heart pumps.

Paris von Lockette 171
Properties of Modified Recycled Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Filament for FFF 3D Printing Applications Zachary Koroneos Additive manufacturing is a growing industry that can reduces the amount of material use and allows for an effective modeling method for computer aided design software. By utilizing 100% recycled PET filament for fused filament fabrication (FFF), a high value output can be produced by utilizing the most consumed polymer on today's market. PET can be combined with chemical additives such as chain-extenders and thermal stabilizers in order to enhance its mechanical properties. Ola Rashwan 24
Quinoline-Based Small Molecules Inhibit the ClpP Protease in Bacterial Cells Anna Brogan One promising target for the development of novel antibiotics is trans-translation, a bacterial pathway which functions to rescue nonstop ribosomes. In a high-throughput screen for inhibitors of the pathway, a class of small molecules known as quinolines was discovered. Following organic synthesis, many compounds of the class had broad-spectrum activity against bacterial pathogens. In vivo reporters and molecular target-probing showed the quinoline class to inhibit proteolysis. The results suggest a novel function for quinoline antimicrobials. Kenneth Keiler 71