2018 Undergraduate Exhibition
|3D Full-Field Mechanical Measurement of Shoulder Bones before and after Implant Placement
This work presents the results of a noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) full-field mechanical measurement of shoulder bones under different loading conditions. Micro X-ray Computed Tomography (u-XCT) of the specimen is taken under no-load and loaded conditions. Then a glenoid implant is cemented into the specimen by a shoulder surgeon. u-XCT of implant-bone structure is taken under no-load and loaded conditions.The deformation and strain in bone with or without implant under various loading conditions are compared.
|Alumni & Heritage Halls, HUB-Robeson Center, University Park Campus
|A Comparison of Macroinvertebrate Communities Among Vernal Pools with Varying Fire Histories
|Richard Austin Novak
|The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of prescribed fire on vernal pool macroinvertebrate communities. We sampled for macroinvertebrates as well as various environmental characteristics in vernal pools with varying fire histories. We found that although the habitats may differ slightly, prescribed fire does not appear to cause significant shifts in macroinvertebrate communities. This information may be useful to land managers.
|A Delayed Hatching Phenotype in C. elegans is Linked to Disruption in NAD+ Biosynthesis from Nicotinamide Riboside
|Josef Michael Blaszkiewicz, Julia Catena and Nicholas Cann
We use C. elegans as a model organism to study the impact of NAD+ metabolism on development. We have identified a delayed-hatching phenotype associated with deficiency in the nmrk-1 gene, which is involved in NAD+ biosynthesis. We examined deficiency in the genes nmat-1 and nmat-2, which operate directly downstream of nmrk-1. Through mutant analysis and RNAi knockdowns, we have found that a similar, possibly more severe phenotype is associated with deficiency in the nmat genes.
|A Review of the Techniques for the Application of Filler Metal in the Sinter-Brazing Process
|Matthew E Lingle
|The most common type of filler metal that is used in the sinter-brazing process is a 40% Copper/ 40% Nickle material. Filler metal pellets, paste, and paint are all tested in this experiment. The application techniques will be reviewed using an iron based material that is molded to a 7.0 g/cc density and sintered in a Carbon Monoxide containing atmosphere. The test specimens will be tensile tested lap joints.
|A Study of Flow Conditions in The Penn State Pediatric Total Artificial Heart
|Brian D Brazon and Brady Houtz
The total artificial heart (TAH) is a pump used to replace both ventricles of the heart when they can no longer provide enough cardiac output. The left and right pumps of the TAH were modeled in acrylic to study the hemodynamics using particle image velocimetry. In addition to developing models for the ventricular pumps, preliminary waveforms for the right side were obtained to match physiological conditions and compared to literature.
|Accelerated Wear on Bioprosthetic Heart Valves
|Carmen Rosporski and Grant Newman
The Food and Drug Administration uses accelerated wear testing on heart valves to determine the lifespan of this device. To begin understanding the effect of accelerated wear on porcine, mitral, bioprosthetic heart valves, the effective orifice area is determined at varying points in the cardiac cycle. A comparison to published in vivo and computational data on physiological valve motion helps to understand the similarities and differences between both conditions.
|Acceptability of Using Eyeglass Video Cameras to Detect Visual Cues for Sedentary Behavior
|Natalia Teresa Oliveira
Habits can interfere with behavior change if contextual cues activate undesired behaviors automatically. New tools are needed to identify the cues that initiate habitual behavior. This study evaluated the feasibility of using eyeglass video cameras to identify visual cues for sedentary behavior. Adults (n=10) recorded over 39 hours of first-person video while wearing activity monitors. Eyeglass video cameras were acceptable for recording exposure to visual cues, but consideration must be paid to protecting privacy.
|Dr. David Conroy
|Accuracy of Wrist-Worn Consumer Activity Trackers
|Matthew Duffy Moran
The purpose of our study was to compare total step counts obtained by Fitbit Charge HR, Fitbit Blaze and Apple Watch with observed step counts obtained by video recordings during a treadmill protocol to evaluate the accuracy of the devices in determining step counts. Fifty participants completed a 4-stage treadmill protocol with all devices worn on the participant's non-dominant wrist. No significant differences in steps for all devices when compared with observed video step counts.
|Active vs. Motorized Transport and Student Health
|James Burton Kauffman
This study examined how the form of transport to campus(active vs. motorized) was related to college students' health and fitness. Data were collected via an online survey (demographics, transportation habits) and objective fitness assessment, and analyzed using independent samples t-tests. Those who did not use motorized transport more than twice a week had significantly higher aerobic fitness than those who used active transport. Findings indicate that universities should consider enacting strategies to facilitate active transport.
|Dr. Melissa Bopp
|Active-Z Printing: A New Way to Improve 3D Printed Part Strength
|Jivtesh Bineet Khurana
Part Shape and build parameters in 3D Printing play a vital role in determining mechanical properties of 3D printed parts. Particularly, the use of 2D layers printed parallel to the build surface produces weak parts especially when stresses perpendicular to the layer interface. We investigate a novel approach that uses non-planar 3D layers, Active Z printing, to improve mechanical strength by aligning the principal stresses in the part parallel to the material deposition paths.
|Advanced Turbine Measurement System Design for Rotating Instrumentation
|Ashley Nicole Castell
The START Laboratory is a research facility housing a test turbine engine where advanced heat flux sensors need to be implemented to gather more test data and continue experiments. In order to implement these sensors into the continuous-duration turbine, unique methods such as the use of slip rings and custom designed couplings will be used to allow these parts to function within the constraints of the turbine.
|Age and genetic background influence initial nicotine sensitivity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice
|Carley Noel Miller
|This study examined whether age, genetic background, and their interaction influence the relationship between initial behavioral responses to nicotine and later voluntary nicotine consumption. Our data show that age and genetic background interact to influence initial nicotine sensitivity in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice. Further, our data reveal a relationship between acute nicotine responses and later consumption. Our results provide a greater understanding of factors that promote nicotine dependence.
|An Evaluation of Slides Prepared for Cervical Anomaly for Use in Missing Person Cases
|In Forensic Science cases, sometimes a female victim goes missing. DNA profiles obtained from bloodstains or cigarette butts retrieved from the crime scene cannot be compared to her profile due to lack of reference samples. In these cases, specimens such as routinely preserved Papanicolaou test slides can be used as the reference sample (intimate source). In this research, complete DNA profiles were generated from stained Papanicolaou smear slides using direct amplification and extracted DNA
|An Examination About Anxiety and Reappraisal in Job Interviews
|In this study, the researcher will recruit 300 students from Pennsylvania State University. Participants will be randomly assigned into control and experimental groups and will perform in job interviews. Experiment group will receive reappraising instructions and the control group will not receive any instructions.Male will score higher than female on job interviews. Reappraising groups will receive higher score than no reappraising groups. This study shows that people can improve their performance outcomes by redefining stress.
|An Examination of Factors that Have Pushed Life Expectancy in Costa Rica to Surpass Life Expectancy in the United States of America
Life expectancy in Costa Rica has risen to surpass those living in the United States. Mortality rates in the United States are 18% higher than in Costa Rica. Recognizing factors that influence mortality is critical so that policy changes can be made in the United States. Factors to examine in Costa Rica include the healthcare system, access to care, how early pre-natal delivery impacts life and mandatory maternity leave and the impact on child development.
|Dr. Celeste Newcomb
|AN EXAMINATION OF LOCOMOTIVE BEHAVIOR, GERMLINE PROLIFERATION, AND LIPID CONTENT IN A NOVEL AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER 16P11.2 DELETION CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS MODEL
|Rhea Elena Sullivan
|Due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of human neurodevelopmental disorders, it is often difficult to pin point a diagnosis based on behavior alone. Copy number variations (CNV) in the genome have been thought to be the unidentified component that affects such clinical variation. This study examines one rare (<1%) CNV implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the 16p11.2 recurrent microdeletion. I investigated the individual genes encompassed within this deletion and determined their contributions to the overall phenotypes of motor function, obesity, and embryonic cell line proliferation.
|An examination of the impact of college level physical activity classes by race and ethnicity
|Samantha N Shields
|Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with physical and psychosocial benefits as well as chronic disease prevention. However, health disparities exist between races/ethnicities. This study examined differences in PA behaviors, social media sharing, and wearable device use by race in college students enrolled in physical education classes. Survey data was analyzed by SPSS software. Differences were seen in the variables over time (1 semester) and by race/ethnicity.
|Analog Circuit Modeling of Gene-Protein Networks
|Alexander Paul Kramer and Swaroop Ghosh
Electrical Engineering principles enable synthetic biologists to design genetic circuits that perform complex computations and bio-sensing. Developing analog electronic models of gene-protein networks allows synthetic biologists to design genetic circuits that consume less space and power when compared to genetic circuits resembling digital logic elements. I investigated the mathematical foundations of the analog electronic circuit representations of genetic circuits for a tool that generates electrical parameters when given data from a specific genetic circuit.
|Analysis of Geological Date from the North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea
|Quinn William Vollmer and Brittney Fitzgerald
Sedimentation data are important for predicting climate change, analyzing benthic habitats and determining ideal locations for off-shore structures. We used grain size, color, composition, and sediment shape to understand off-shore and nearshore trends. Sediment furthest from the land was much finer and rounded in comparison to samples closet to land at San Juan Harbor.
|Analysis of the Cause of Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes
|Nicholas Dimitrion and Alvaro Guerra
PMWEs are strong radar echoes that are recorded by VHF radars, when operating at 52 MHz and 224 MHz. They occur between 50-80 km in the polar regions of the atmosphere during the winter months. The PAWSS payload aims to answer the question- Are PMWEs the result of 3m electron density irregularities produced by neutral turbulence? To answer the question PAWSS, containing three different instruments, will fly from Andoya, Norway aboard the sounding rocket G-Chaser.
|Analysis of the oral microbiota as a predictor for development of obesity
|Nicole Mi Hwang
|The Childhood Obesity Project has identified a significant negative association between the abundance of Fusobacterium in the oral microbiota and conditional weight gain in children. I am working to characterize the Fusobacterium by their species and abundance, as this will help us understand the specific relationships between microbes and child weight gain trajectories. We hope to use the findings from this study to identify patterns in the microbiota that may predispose individuals to obesity.
|Anemia and insomnia: a cross-sectional study and a meta-analysis
|Samantha N Neumann
|Recent studies have investigated genes associated with insomnia complaints. We examined whether adults with anemia have higher odds of having insomnia in a cross-sectional study and a meta-analysis. The cross-sectional study included 11,040 Chinese adults who participated in an ongoing cohort, the Kailuan Study. The association between anemia and insomnia was assessed using a logistic regression model. Presence of anemia was significantly associated with higher likelihood of having insomnia.
|Animal Models of Alcohol Use Disorders and the Brain: From Casual Drinking to Dependence
|Ketamine is an experimental antidepressant capable of reversing depressive symptoms. Binge drinking results in altered emotional behavior reminiscent of depression-like symptoms in animal models. We hypothesize that ketamine restores binge drinking induced defects in synaptic transmission similar to its effects in mouse models of depression. 3mg/kg of ketamine reduced binge drinking in female C57Bl/6J mice with no effect in males. Our data suggest that ketamine may be an effective treatment for binge drinking in females.
|APP for medical instrument device AnyMDx
This article related to the process of developing A Mobile Phone APP for medical instrument. The main function of the APP is offering the connectivity to our portable molecular diagnostic system. It will allow the control command and data communication between the portable AnyMDx and the smartphone. With powerful computation ability associated with the smartphone, a database and cloud based results aggregation system can be used for malaria elimination effort.
|Application of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry on tephra from Afar, Ethiopia
Tephra, eruptive material from volcanoes containing glass, crystals, and lithics, acts as a marker linking Earth's history, fossil records, and archaeological finds. Glass geochemistry aid in correlations of sedimentary layers and geologic mapping in regions like the Afar Depression, Ethiopia. Recent improvements in laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry allow discrete glass shard analysis of trace and minor elements. Here, I show the applicability of LA-ICP-MS for tephra from Afar and indicate correlations of tephra.
|Dr. Erin DiMaggio
|Are Adults Aware of the Cues They Use to Label Someone as “Male” or “Female”?
|Jane Hiu-Tung Chung
|This study investigated adults' awareness of gender labeling processes by comparing the types of labeling strategies described by adults in two conditions. Adults who were asked candidly about gender labeling processes reported using biological cues and cultural cues, whereas adults who were shown a picture to label reported using cultural cues. This difference shows inconsistency between adults' awareness of labeling processes, prompting further exploration in the metacognition behind gender labeling by situation.
|Assessing Physical Activity Promotion Among Church Youth Programs
|Danielle Ronnie Jones
This study examined the frequency and methods of physical activity education and promotion within various church youth programs. An online survey sent to church leaders in New Jersey and Pennsylvania assessed demographics and physical activity education and promotion prevalence and methods. Most churches did not have any programs for children regarding physical activity, strategies varied greatly. These findings demonstrate there is an opportunity to improve physical activity education and promotion in churches for children.
|Assessing the Chemo-Mechanical Properties of Cytoplasmic Dynein through In Vitro Assays
|Thomas R. Blanda
|Molecular motors are implicated in a myriad of transport phenomena crucial to the cell's maintenance of vesicle translocation and cell division. A fortified understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive these motors to bind microtubules and traverse along them can provide insight into neurological diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The primary objective of this study was to determine chemical and mechanical parameters of cytoplasmic dynein (DDB) using motility assays with mixed molecular motors.
|William O. Hancock
|Assessment of the blood pregnancy-specific protein B test to determine pregnancy in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus)
|Julia Silva Seixas
|The serum pregnancy-specific protein B test was analyzed as an alternative pregnancy test for free-ranging elks. It used post-mortem uterine examinations as the gold standard. The serum test used was BioPRYNwild, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed by Biotracking, Inc. Embryos ranged in age from 13 to 111 days (n = 77). The BioPRYN(r)wild test had a sensitivity of 93-95% and specificity of 91-93%. The positive and negative predicted values were 87-90-% and 95-96% respectively.
|Association between physical activity and dietary behaviors in a culturally adapted mind-body intervention
|Anne Marie Melda
|Mind-body practices have been used to promote physical activity (PA), but little is known on how they impact other health behaviors. In a group of sedentary adults who participated in an 8-week culturally adapted mind-body intervention, increased self-reported PA was significantly associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption at post-intervention (v=.286, p=.043). Findings suggest mind-body interventions may be utilized to promote a wide range of healthy behaviors beyond PA and improve health in adults.
|Associations Among Social Support, Perceived Stress, Physical Activity, and Sitting Time Among College Students
|Jamie H Kang
|Social support (SS) is associated with increased physical activity (PA) and reduced sitting time (ST), but the role of perceived stress is less understood. Findings suggest that high SS was associated with lower stress (v=-0.188, p=0.00), and lower stress was significantly associated with higher vigorous PA (v=-0.128, p=0.004) and lower ST (v=0.036, p=0.442). Thus, health promotion efforts should include fostering SS along with relaxation techniques to reduce stress and promote PA/reduce ST in college students.
|Automated Design for Additive Manufacturing Optimization through Machine Learning
|This project aims to leverage machine learning to automate Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) with an initial focus on light weight design. An already developed training set of voxelized files will be put through autoencoders to create neural networks which recognize features associated with DfAM. These features will then be applied to user submitted parts, resulting will be a mechanical part that satisfies the performance attributes of the original input, and is significantly lighter.
|Automatic control of microscope for 3D imaging
|Manoj Varma Saripalli
The confocal microscope provides a direct, noninvasive approach to obtain a three-dimensional image of a nanostructured sample. Currently there are no publicly available 3D imaging programs for the microscope, wasting its potential. We worked to develop an algorithm that synchronizes the motion of a nano-positioning stage with the collection timing of optical detectors. We developed code to reconstruct a 2D image of the sample nanostructure. The next step would be to construct a 3D image.
|Autonomous Vehicles in a Traffic Stream
|Michael E Willis
Self-driving cars are very often in the news, and while many have speculated about their safety, there isn't as much research about the actual efficiency of their impact on traffic. My plan for this project is to set up a scenario using Aimsun software where I can simulate the implementation of autonomous vehicles in a particular traffic stream, and add and change variables to see how much of an impact they make in different scenarios.
|Dr. Vikash Gayah
|Bacillus strains used as a Biological Control for Trichoderma aggressivum aggressivum
|Trichoderma aggressivum aggressivum (Ta2), the causal agent of green mold, inhibits mycelium growth of the Agarcius bisporus mushroom which leads to severe or complete crop loss. Bacillus spp. have been known to show a strong inhibition to Ta2. Bacillus spp., isolated from compost, were screened for inhibition against Ta2. Transposon mutagenesis was performed on Bacillus strains to identify the genes responsible for the inhibition of Ta2.
|Bayesian Reasoning for Automatic Security Mediation Placement
|Security-typed languages use type systems to enable information-flow control and verify the satisfactory of security properties. Many programs exhibit behaviors that require security checks at runtime. Currently, the mediation statements are manually added. Automatic tools can relieve programmers' job by suggesting candidates for the locations where mediation statements can be placed. In this research project, we will apply Bayes' theorem in producing accurate security mediation placement suggestions.
|Bilayer Formation on Protocells
|Coacervates are a type of liquid-liquid phase separation that have protocellular properties. We characterized the interactions between different coacervate systems at different charge ratios and different liposome systems in order to investigate the possibility of bilayer formation on the surface of coacervates. Several of our systems achieved liposome assembly at the interface, but continuous bilayer formation was not observed.
|Biodegragation of SRT Protiens
|Alexandra L Kotrick
|Polymeric proteins, such as squid ring teeth (SRT) proteins, hold great promise for industrial usage due to their thermal abilities and broad range of solutions. Evidence in recent studies have shown SRT proteins hold great promise in the production of slowly digested medical meshes. In order to evaluate the time frame in which a mesh will breakdown within a body research was conducted to evaluate the speed at which trypsin could breakdown the SRT proteins
|Biophysical and Biochemical Characterization of Mitochondrial Transcription on Chimeric and Authentic Templates
|Guinevere Vanbuskirk Oliver
|For years, mitochondria have been promoted as the "powerhouse of the cell," because the energy they produce is essential to life. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or genes required for mtDNA gene expression have been linked to diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and muscular dystrophies. I did biochemical and biophysical characterization of mitochondrial DNA templates in order to investigate the transcription of mitochondrial DNA and contribute to research on this important organelle.
|Blockchain Technology and Autonomous Vehicles
|Nikolas Lecce, Cody Holl and Zachary Conway
To describe and illustrate how Blockchain technology can be utilized as the operating system to more refine the decision making of autonomous vehicles. Blockchain technology will be able to share information between vehicles in proximity with one another in realtime. Integrating a grid computing system into the current intranet of autonomous vehicles, utilizing Blockchain, that would share information machine-to-machine that would allow for the vehicles to understand their surroundings, through shared experience from previous encounters.
|Boots on the Ground: Examining the Effects of Militarized Agricultural Aid on Rural Afghanistan
|Olivia Rae Richart
|The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of Agricultural Development Teams through an analysis of their impact on social, economic, and infrastructural dynamics in rural Afghanistan. The facets which are explored include outreach methods, funding sources, troop readiness, and interdisciplinary approaches. Through this, I hope to discover the highlight the ultimate effectiveness of militarized agricultural aid provided by the United States Army and Air Force.
|Bovine Mammary Glands Use Leaky Basolaterial Cell Boarder to Accommodate Essential IgG1 Transportation During Colostrogenesis
|Jacqueline Kay O'Donnell
Colostrum is a thick form of milk that bovine produce prior to parturition , which contains high concentration of IgG. E-Cadherin is a adhesive junction between the epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In this study we used IHC to analyze changes of E-Cadherin during the colostrogenesis. The results showed that the junctions became leaky to facilitate the transportation of colostrum.
|Brachypodium Genetics and the Analysis of Metaxylem Development
|Brachypodium acts as a model plant species for root trait studies. This small annual grass serves as a surrogate for studies of rice, allowing investigation into monocotyledon root development in relation to crop development. We utilize Brachypodium to examine metaxylem candidate genes to determine their impact on the metaxylem development. Using this information, we are developing an understanding between the correlation between genes that affect metaxylem formation to ultimately influence drought tolerance in rice.
|Cahal Pech: Recreating Ruins with Structure from Motion Mapping
Through the use of 3D modeling, structure from motion mapping, and virtual reality, the ChoroPhronesis lab is making archeological sites available to the classroom. Cahal Pech, a Mayan ruin in Belize, is the test site for using structure from motion mapping to create models of the ruins that can be placed into a virtual reality platform and be used as an educational tool.
|Cardiovascular Stress-Reactivity to Social Exclusion: Body Mass Index and Self-Concept Clarity as Plausible Moderators
|Ann Marie Curtin White and Drew Geller
Cardiovascular responses to social exclusion are typical, but large individual differences exist. Individuals high in body-mass index (BMI) or low in Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) may be more sensitive to social exclusion. We examined if BMI or SCC moderated cardiovascular responses to experimental social exclusion. Our analyses suggest that having high SCC may buffer cardiovascular reactivity to social exclusion; however, that individuals at higher BMI may be more sensitive to social exclusion regardless of SCC.
|Chandra: Unusual extended X-Ray Emission
|I have been looking at data from the Chandra X-ray telescope of a pulsar and an unusual extended emission. My research aims at determining the relationship of the pulsar and the extended emission, and further characterizing the extended emission itself using data analysis software specific to Chandra. My area of entry is "physical sciences", I am the sole author and the research was done under Bettina Posselt (email@example.com). I will be present from 6-8 PM.
|Characterization and Target Identification of Hydrazine Carbonothiol Inhibitors
|Sydney Alexis Miller
Antibiotic resistance is a growing global epidemic. New antibiotics must be developed to combat this problem. The hydrazine carbonothiol compounds target the trans-translation pathway in bacteria and are a promising and novel class of drugs. This research aims to characterize the properties of the hydrazine carbonothiol compounds and identify the target within the trans-translation pathway. This facilitates further modifications to the compounds to maximize therapeutic value during antibiotic development.
|Dr. Kenneth Keiler
|Characterization of a novel multi-drug resistance efflux system in Caulobacter crescentus
|Mary H Swaney
|The efflux of antibiotics is a growing concern in regards to antibiotic resistance, necessitating its study in biomedical research. Inactivation of a gene encoding for a transcriptional regulator of a novel multi-drug resistance efflux system in C. crescentus results in an increase in resistance to a broad range of antibiotics. Other genes involved in this system have also been identified and are currently being studied for their role in bacterial efflux.
|Characterization of a Novel Neuronal Injury Model in Drosophila
|Aabha Premal Vora and Mila Tamminga
Neurons must last an entire lifetime, despite facing frequent risk of injury from sources such as traumatic brain injury. Injury response is often modeled in Drosophila by using a laser to sever neurites and is well-studied. However, we recently observed an alternate type of injury, termed explosion injury, which produces an immediate, massive increase in cytosolic calcium and microtubules. Our goal is to characterize this cellular response, including its relationship to calcium and microtubule upregulation.
|Characterization of HelD, a Novel RNA Polymerase Binding Protein in Bacillus subtilis
The goal of this project is to obtain a high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the protein HelD in complex with B. subtilis RNAP to elucidate the structural basis of RNAP recycling by the DNA helicase HelD. Two techniques have been used toward the structure determinations: X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of HelD, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine the structure of HelD-RNAP complex. Overall, this project provides a framework for purification protocol of HelD.
|Dr. Katsuhiko Murakami